Mostly a peaceful group, they did band together with the Maricopa for their mutual protection against incursions by both the Yuma and Apache tribes.
The Maricopa are part of the larger Yuma people; however, they migrated east from the lower Colorado and Gila Rivers in the early 1800s, when they began to be enemies with their Yuma brethren, settling amongst the existing communities of the Akimel O'odham.
Phoenix became a trade center, with its products reaching eastern and western markets.
In response, the Phoenix Chamber of Commerce was organized on November 4, 1888.
Located in the northeastern reaches of the Sonoran Desert, Phoenix has a subtropical desert climate.
Despite this, its canal system led to a thriving farming community, many of the original crops remaining important parts of the Phoenix economy for decades, such as alfalfa, cotton, citrus, and hay (which was important for the cattle industry).
The homestead is named after "Lord" Darrell Duppa, an Englishman who is credited with naming Phoenix and Tempe as well as founding the town of New River.
The first election for county office was held in 1871, when Tom Barnum was elected the first sheriff, running unopposed when the other two candidates, John A.By 1881, Phoenix's continued growth made the existing village structure with a board of trustees obsolete.The Territorial Legislature passed "The Phoenix Charter Bill", incorporating Phoenix and providing for a mayor-council government, which became official on February 25, 1881 when it was signed by Governor John C.The Akimel O'odham were the major Native American group in the area, and lived in small villages, with well-defined irrigation systems, which spread over the entire Gila River Valley, from Florence in the east to the Estrellas in the west.Their crops included corn, beans, and squash for food, while cotton and tobacco were also cultivated.