The most successful was Colonel Fred Cummins whose congress at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York, in 1901 included both Calamity Jane and the great Sioux leader Red Cloud.
The role of Indian people was both essential and anomalous in the Wild West.
Medicine Shows employed frontiersmen and Indian people to help sell tonics and other “natural” cures.She saw it performed in Cody’s show in 1888 and wrote him appreciatively, describing her emotional reaction to its “terrible” realism.The Last Stand became a regular feature in Cody’s and other shows, sometimes even employing actual battle participants from both sides. “Buffalo Bill” Cody opened Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show on May 19, 1883 at Omaha, Nebraska. Elevated walkways enabled royal visitors to watch the Indians play at real life.His partner that first season was a dentist and exhibition shooter, Dr. Exotic elements of Native American life later became staples of European and American circuses.