Pornographic photography also is a form of sexual abuse of children. Despite publicity surrounding cases where a child is assaulted by a stranger, almost all sexual assaults against children are perpetrated by a family member (e.g.father, stepfather, aunt, uncle, sibling, cousin) or family intimate (e.g., a live-in lover or friend of the parent). The legal definition of rape includes only slight penile penetration in the victim's outer vulva area.Physical abuse can happen to both children and adults of either gender and of any sexual orientation.
The Centre for Promoting Alternatives to Violence describes abusers as being obsessively jealous and possessive, overly confident, having mood swings or a history of violence or temper, seeking to isolate their partner from family, friends and colleagues, and having a tendency to blame external stressors.Abuse also encompasses inappropriate use of any substance, especially those that alter consciousness (e.g., alcohol, cocaine, methamphetamines).There are several major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, substance abuse, elder abuse, and psychological abuse.Violence against women tends to increase in times of economic downturns and political or social chaos (e.g., when a country is at war). Department of Justice found that in domestic violence cases, 61% of the perpetrators and 36% of the victims had a substance abuse problem. Males can be victims of physical abuse, especially in homosexual relationships, but the statistics for abuse against men are more poorly documented than for abuse against women and children.Domestic violence is also strongly linked to substance abuse among the perpetrators. Sexual abuse of a child refers to sexual behavior between an adult and child or between two children, one of whom is forcefully dominant or significantly older.