The volcanic eruptions and underwater earthquakes lead to the massive waves.
The tsunami which happened in 2004 was the result of the gigantic earthquake off Sumatra, which killed 2,30,000 people.
In lichens, biomass increase is presumed to be manifest in an increase in linear dimension, area or weight, which are convenient to measure (Table 1). For a lichen, an increase in lobe length, or thallus diameter, may not exactly reflect increase in area or mass; conversely, biomass increase may, for example, occur without an increase in the apparent linear size of a lichen thallus (e.g.
a thallus confined in a mosaic may grow only in thickness).
Whereas Papua New Guinea tsunami took place in 1998.
The tsunami was destructive that it cleared out villages, damaged crops and forced many survivors to relocate.
Therefore that similar tsunami happened 6,000 years before.
Golitko said that they doubt that one or more large waves affected the coast just like tsunami 1998.
Then in the late 1970's, a remarkable thing happened.
Following precise dating exposed it was around 6,000 years old.
James Goff of the University of New South Wales in Australia who is also tsunami expert said, “As probably the oldest-known tsunami victim in the world, the Aitape skull speaks volumes about the long-term exposure of human populations along the world’s coastlines and how such events in the past will have undoubtedly had fundamental effects on human migration, settlement and culture.” The scientists analyzed securities at the river-bed site which shows the clear sign of tsunami activity.
So, you think you've been everywhere, and done everything?
We hate to disagree with you, but we're going to.